Produce an academic essay that defines reflection and compares and contrasts 2 reflective models. Use a least one internet, book and journal reference that you have sourced yourself and correctly document them.
REFLECTION: TWO REFLECTIVE MODELS COMPARED AND CONTRASTED
Reflection is a process of retrospective self-examination done for the purpose of assessing, analysing, and discovering how much practical knowledge one has acquired, the deficiencies in one’s learning methods and the extent to which one’s knowledge has been applied in the experience under consideration (Brooker and Nicol 2003; What is Reflection? 2009). Reflection is therefore not random thinking. It is an objective process of practical self-assessment. To achieve this self-assessment, reflective models are commonly used (Brooker and Nicol 2003). Two such models are Gibbs model and Boud et al model (ibid). Both models show similarities and dissimilarities which will be briefly considered following a short examination of both models.
2.0. GIBB’S MODEL OF REFLECTION
For a thorough reflection, Gibbs model prescribes the following six self-questions:
- “What happened? (Description)
- “What [am I] feeling or thinking? (Feelings)
- “What was good and bad about the experience?(Evaluation)
- “What sense can [I] make out of the situation? (Analysis)
- “What else could [I] have done? (Conclusion)
- “If it arose again, what would I do? (Action)” (Brooker and Nicol 2003,p.16)
From questions (1) and (2), Gibbs did not provide a definitive frame of reference for determining “what was good” and “what was bad” about the experience; or for answering questions 4, 5 and 6. Deducibly, then, for the six questions he recommends dependence on memory, “feeling” or “thinking”.
3.0. BOUD ET AL’S MODEL
Boud, Keogh &Walker’s model proposes that the individual always reacts to, or “evaluates” his performance in the course of experiencing (Kember and Jones 2001). For a thorough assessment, however, it prescribes a reflective process of re-evaluating the performance using the following four guides (“elements”):
- “Association – relating new data to that which is already known
- “Integration – seeking relationships among data
- “Validation – determining the authenticity of the ideas and feelings which have resulted
- “Appropriation – making knowledge one’s own” (Kember and Jones 2001,p.22)
The term “data” implies statistical recording of information (Learning how to Learn 2003). Thus, elements (1) and (2) prescribe an objective update of data. Elements (3) and (4), on the other hand, suggest the application of a formal frame of reference for determining the “authenticity” of the resulting “ideas and feelings” and for the purpose of gaining authentic “knowledge”. They do not, however, prescribe any yardsticks for recognising or formulating an authentic frame of reference.
4.0. COMPARISON OF GIBBS’ WITH BOUD ET AL’S MODEL
From the above statements and deductions, the models compare as follows:
(A)Both models aim at improving and furthering the individual’s learning and knowledge.
(B) Their steps are both structured and interrelated.
(C) Both models take the feelings and the personal ideas of the individual into consideration.
(D) They both respect the individual’s way of thinking.
(E) They are both forward-looking.
5.0. CONTRASTING GIBBS’ WITH BOUD ET AL’S MODEL
The following contrasts can be discovered:
- In their prescriptions, Boud et al’s model is largely formal whereas Gibb’s is largely informal.
- Boud et al’s model tends towards objectivity while Gibb’s tends towards subjectivity.
- Boud et al’s model recommends formal verification of ideas and feelings, which Gibb’s does not recommend.
- Gibb’s model accommodates the individual’s feelings: Boud et al’s emphasises the individual’s thinking.
- Gibb’s model is cautionary while Boud et al’s is precautionary.
Brooker, C, Nicol, M (2003) Nursing Adults: The Practice of Caring (illustrated edn), Elsevier Health Sciences, Chapter 1.
Kember, D, Jones, A (2001) Reflective Teaching & Learning in the Health Professions: Action Research in Professional Education (illustrated edn), Blackwell Publishing, Chapter 1.
NATIONAL HEALTH CENTRE (2002) ‘Effective Nursing Practices’ Learning How to Learn, 6 December, p.22
Thinking or Feeling Preference, [online] (Cited 7th March 2009) Available from <URL:http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/thinking-feeling/>
What is Reflection? Learning How to Learn, [online] (Cited 7th March 2009) Available from <URL:http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=210891/>