Running Head: Managing people and Organizations
Managing people and Organizations
[Name of Writer]
[Name of Institution]
Managing people and Organizations
The public sector and voluntary sector have different approaches towards human resource management. The public sector is marked by efficiency and effectiveness because it adheres to traditional strategies. However, there is the need to adopt flexible and innovative strategies in order to ensure compatibility with the requirements of the twenty first century. This paper compares the Department of Work and Pensions with The National Council of Voluntary Child Care Organizations. Both organizations use traditional recruitment and performance appraisal strategies. A set of clear rules and regulations are available for the formulation of HRM policies and procedures. The Department of Work and Pensions needs to adopt new approaches like 360 degrees and MBO for its performance appraisal system. Further it should seek to incorporate various strategies for enhancing the recruitment process. The use of multifaceted strategies will help the organization to attain its corporate objectives and goals. HRM is a dynamic process that needs to be based upon current trends and organizational requirements. It should be creative and innovative enough to devise flexible solutions for problems. The use of multifaceted and multidimensional strategies can be used as a catalyst for growth and success in a cutthroat environment.
Human resource management is concerned with the set of policies and procedures that help to create a vibrant and dynamic work force. It helps the organization to derive tangible and intangible benefits through increased revenues and profits. Furthermore, it results in the satisfaction of key goals because the work force is trained to perform at optimized levels. HRM should be utilized as a means to increase productivity and output in the business environment. It should become the strategy for attaining excellence in the business environment. The public sector and voluntary sector utilize diverse approaches towards human resource management. The Department of Work and Pensions uses a bureaucratic approach towards HRM. This means that decision making is highly centralized and managed by selected members of the organization. Such an approach is based upon traditional and conventional strategies in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. The National Council of Voluntary Child Care Organizations uses a number of approaches towards HRM. It seeks to incorporate innovative and creative approaches in order to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. This research paper seeks to compare and contrast the HRM policies and procedures in both organizations. It will seek to highlight the differences in HR policies, performance appraisal, and recruitment. A number of recommendations have been stated in order to enhance the overall HRM process in the Department of Work and Pensions.
Human resource management has been evolving as a major science in the twentieth century. This was due to the reason that it helped to create efficient policies for the management of people. Traditional forms of HRM relied on increasing productivity through the stimulation of the work force. It sought to create a vibrant and dynamic process in which objectives could be attained. However, with the advent of the twenty first century there has been remarkable shift towards creative HRM policies. Such an approach is based upon assessing the rapidly changing labour market (Kessler, Purcell & Coyle, 2000: Pg 24). The use of various variables can help the organization to attain excellence. The public sector has been considered to operate on traditional bureaucratic principles inside the United Kingdom. This system has a hierarchical group of managers and subordinates. Job responsibilities are elucidated in a clear and precise manner so that problems can be mitigated. Further standard rules and regulations are utilized to respond to problems in the business environment. In stark contrast, the voluntary sector is driven by values and ethical principles. It seeks to serve the interests of marginalized and vulnerable groups and communities. The HRM policies in both sectors have been considered to be different and unique.
A proper research methodology is crucial for the resolving problems and obstacles. Further an effective research method is based upon the resources and expertise of the researcher. This paper utilizes a case study approach in which two organizations have been selected. The case study approach is beneficial because it enables the direct participation of the researcher in the entire process. It is cost effective while ensuring high levels of accuracy and reliability. Further extensive analysis of the literature was conducted in order to study the public and voluntary sector for their HRM policies and procedures.
Department of Work and Pensions
Setting HR Goals
Department for Work and Pensions has a comprehensive system for formulating HR policies and procedures. A unique aspect of this strategy is to formulate clear and precise goals that seek to involve the key stakeholders of the organization. HR goals are determined based upon the external and internal variables that can impact the performance of organizations. A broad action plan should seek to develop consensus and dialogue with the employees so that high levels of awareness and perception can be established (Kessler, Purcell & Coyle, 2000: Pg 23). The department utilizes short term and long term objectives for its management policies and procedures. The short term objectives involve the process of attaining work duties in a proactive and dynamic manner. A collaborative work environment remains a key short term goal because it helps to prevent disputes and problems. The long term objectives seek to enhance the organizational commitment and job dedication of the work force. The employees are stimulated to align their personal objectives with the departmental targets and ambitions. The bureaucratic structure of the department means that goals and objectives are confined to the upper management. Employees are not consulted about the entire process because standard operating procedures are considered to be sufficient for organizational success and excellence (Legge, 1995: Pg 67).
A sound and viable recruitment policy is the key to effective and efficient management of people inside an organization. The Department of Work and Pensions uses a comprehensive approach towards this issue by integrating multiple components. Equal opportunities are a major objective in order to ensure compliance with UK legislation. The process of selection is based upon the education and work experience of potential candidates. A formal test is conducted in order to ensure that the candidate demonstrates the required competencies to successfully work in a public organization (Mullins, 1996: Pg 123). Job duties are elucidated in a clear and precise manner in order to mitigate the chances of ambiguity in the process. The department utilizes a conventional approach towards promotion by seeking to identify potential managers and leaders. Finally the HR policies seek to create a robust system for addressing the apprehensions and grievances of employees.
Performance appraisal has been dubbed as an essential component of HRM policies. This policy seeks to adopt a smart and vibrant approach towards enhancing the extrinsic and intrinsic motivators of employees. The appraisal system uses traditional approaches that evaluate the competencies and expertise of employees. The performance appraisal system is strongly centralized as employees are not consulted in the process (Armstrong, 2006: Pg 98). It uses a single dimension in order to monitor the performance and progress of employees. Such an approach can create feelings of resentment and frustration among the employees. It can give rise to accusations about the lack of a fair and transparent system.
The National Council of Voluntary Child Care Organizations
Setting HR Policies
The National Council of Voluntary Child Care Organizations (NCVCCA) operates in the voluntary sector. Its human resource strategy seeks to ensure that human capital is appropriate according to its own goals and requirements. It does not strive for profit maximization but needs to be responsible to income providers. Also, the sector is value driven which creates a major impact upon HR policies and procedures. The NCVCCA strives to attract employees who are motivated for social and charitable purposes. Therefore the HR policies are based upon ethical and moral values in order to ensure the success of the organization (Cunningham, 2001: Pg 227). The organization empowers employees with superior levels of decision making and critical thinking that enhances the levels of innovation and creativity. However, this can pose a problem because it can prolong the decision making structures of the organization.
The voluntary sector pursues a remarkably different strategy in terms of retaining and hiring employees. It performs a complete job analysis in order to meet the requirements of the organization. The NCVCCA uses a multidimensional strategy for ensuring that competent and qualified employees can be included in the work environment. Specific parameters and objectives are determined based upon the values of the organization. The organization relies on advertising and referrals in order to recruit potential candidates. The importance of referrals has been highlighted in a number of empirical studies. This is due to the fact that voluntary organizations seek to focus on employees that have greater levels of intrinsic motivators as opposed to extrinsic motivators (Cunningham, 1999: Pg 45). A charity driven strategy helps in the retention of employees that perform their activities in an effective and efficient manner. However, the problems of this strategy have become apparent for the NCVCCA due to a number of reasons. The lack of qualified and competent employees can hurdle the success and excellence of the organization. This is due to the fact that extrinsic motivators are not utilized as means of hiring employees with the required skill sets.
The voluntary sector utilizes a performance appraisal system that is based upon its specific values and objectives. A large number of stakeholders determine the success and efficacy of the strategy. This can create problems for the management because it might lead to the lack of a disciplined and coherent HR strategy. The major weakness of the HR policies is the lack of a secure financial source. This can impact the morale and performance of the work force. NCVCCA needs to adopt a smart performance appraisal system that can take into account the various variables of the sector. A flexible and reliable strategy can be devised through the use of strategic assets and instruments (Cunningham, 1999: Pg 45). The goal should be to develop a performance appraisal system that be used to enhance efficiency and effectiveness.
Comparison and Contrast
The Department of Work and Pensions has a major strategy for recruitment of employees. It utilizes a bureaucratic style in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. This approach has success because it helps to create high levels of uniformity and consistency. Further when compared with the NCVCCA, this does not lead to a number of obstacles and problems. The voluntary organization is plagued by recruitment problems because it does not have experienced and qualified candidates. Further there is a shortage of technical skills that are vital for the management and planning of modern organizations (Legge, 2004: Pg 156). The department has a robust strategy for recruiting employees because it offers monetary reimbursement that is considerably high when compared with voluntary organizations. In addition, it has a centralized management structure that can make rapid and quick decisions regarding recruitment and hiring. A major reason for such a situation is the fact that the department needs technically sound and qualified personnel for its operations. However, the employee turnover rates in the department are comparatively high as opposed to the NCVCCA. This is due to the value driven nature of the voluntary sector in which a large majority of employees work for ethical and moral values. Both organizations utilize a traditional performance appraisal system. The objectives of the system are to provide opinion to employees regarding their performance and expertise. It helps to establish the developmental needs of employees. The system also helps to provide a framework that can be used to distribute benefits to the work force. Increments, promotions, benefits, and perks can also be determined on the basis of the performance appraisal system (Richardson & Thompson, 1999: Pg 92). The system helps the organizations to identify their strengths and weaknesses in a rapidly changing business environment. Finally, it helps to enhance the levels of communication between the management and work force. However the traditional approach towards performance appraisal is flawed due to a number of reasons. It uses a single dimension to analyze and assess the expertise and competencies of the employees. The entire process is confined to the upper management who might intentionally or unintentionally allow personal biases to hinder the success of the process (McLean, Osman & Cho, 2004: Pg 56). It is a rigid and inflexible system that does not utilize the innovative approaches that have been developed in human resource management. The consequences of this strategy are that employees might develop apprehensions and grievances that could be against the basic objectives of the organizations. Both organizations need to devise an efficient strategy that can be used to enhance the process of performance appraisal. Such a strategy can be beneficial because it would help in lowering employee turnovers (McLean, Osman & Cho, 2004: Pg 56). Further it would develop a robust framework that utilizes multidimensional components for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the work force. It can become a catalyst for increasing organizational commitment and job satisfaction among the work force.
The Department of Work and Pensions needs to adopt a decentralized, agile, and flexible HR policy. This can be attained through an appraisal of the entire organization. Future trends need to be anticipated by using a proactive and dynamic strategy. The integration and assimilation of various strategies can help the organization to achieve excellent outcomes. Recruitment policies need to be enhanced in order to ensure the success of the organization. A simple job interview should not be used as the criteria for success in the work environment (Ivancevich, 2003: Pg 80). Practical tests should be conducted for example the employees could be asked to work on word processing software. Technical problems could be resolved by analyzing and assessing the competencies of the workers. The department needs to adopt a smart and prudent strategy in order to ensure the success of its recruitment drive. A decentralized management system is vital for the success of the department in the twenty first century (Ivancevich, 2003: Pg 81). A flexible and dynamic recruitment system is based upon clear job duties and responsibilities. The benefits should be elucidated in a clear and precise manner so that the employees are able to enhance their motivational factors. Further a number of behavioural, personality, and technical traits need to be considered in potential candidates. These traits can be used to create an efficient assessment instrument that can lead to the hiring of potential candidates (McLean, Osman & Cho, 2004: Pg 62). A committee should be established for selecting potential candidates. Such an approach involves the various departmental heads as they can assess the competencies of the workers. The Department of Work and Pensions needs to adopt an innovative strategy for performance appraisal. This can be done through the adoption of techniques like 360 degrees and management by objectives (MBO). 360 degrees utilizes a technique in which the manager obtains feedback about the employee from colleagues, departmental heads, and subordinates. This creates a multidimensional performance appraisal system that can minimize the chances of discrimination and bias. It helps to create a decentralized strategy that incorporates multiple variables to create a comprehensive performance appraisal system (McLean, Osman & Cho, 2004: Pg 70). The approach even utilizes feedback from external stakeholders in order to arrive at superior conclusions. Another approach is MBO which divides employee performance into specific objectives and targets. Departmental, organizational, and individual goals are determined for the employee. Expectations are clearly elucidated in order to prevent any vagueness in the process. Employees are empowered to develop critical thinking and decision making skills so that work activities are accomplished in an efficient and effective manner. Another benefit of this approach is that organizations are able to retain competent and qualified employees. HRM is a dynamic process that needs to be based upon current trends and organizational requirements. It should be creative and innovative enough to devise flexible solutions for problems. The use of multifaceted and multidimensional strategies can be used as a catalyst for growth and success in a cutthroat environment (McLean, Osman & Cho, 2004: Pg 72).
A smart HRM strategy takes into account the external and internal variables of the business environment. It should be based upon current and future trends in order to ensure flexibility and reliability. Further, a sound strategy should be based upon efficiency and effectiveness and should seek to incorporate smart strategies that can be used to attain excellence in the business environment. The Department of Works and Pensions needs to utilize creative approaches towards performance appraisal. This can involve the application of methods like 360 degrees and management by objectives (MBO). A multiple component approach helps to reduce chances of bias and discrimination in the entire process. It creates a collaborative and responsive work environment that can be used to attain excellence. Furthermore, the workforce enjoys organizational commitment and job satisfaction through sound policies. The recruitment policies should seek to evaluate the skills and attributes of candidates. This can be done through tests and practical scenarios that help to ensure success in the process. A robust and versatile strategy for HRM takes into account the innovative practices in other organizations. A decentralized management structure will help to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the organization. It will create a collaborative and supportive environment that leads to low levels of employee turnover. Flexible working strategies help to increase the morale, quality, and performance of the work force. It helps in the development of smart and proactive strategies and it also leads to the attainment of organizational goals through a logical and practical approach.
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